Pisciculture or Fish culture is the process of breeding and rearing of fishes in ponds, reservoirs (dams), lakes, rivers and paddy fields. It is the farming of economically important fishes under controlled conditions. Pisciculture helps in integrated rural development by generating employment and income to the fishing community and fish farmers.
Aquaculture is the process of rearing, breeding and harvesting of aquatic species, both animals and plants, in controlled aquatic environments like the oceans, lakes, rivers, ponds and streams. It serves different purposes, including food production, restoration of the threatened and endangered species population, wild stock population enhancement, the building of aquariums, and fish cultures and habitat restoration.
Difference between Aquaculture and Pisciculture: –
- Aquaculture is rearing and management of fish, oyster, mussels and other aquatic animals, flora and fauna. Whereas pisciculture includes rearing, catching and management of catching of fish.
- Aquaculture also known as aquafarming, involves cultivating aquatic populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Commercial aquaculture supplies one half of the fish and shellfish that is directly consumed by humans. Pisciculture or fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species’ natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. The most common fish species raised by fish farms are salmon, carp, tilapia, European seabass, catfish and cod.
- Aquaculture produces both flora and fauna with a commercial value while pisciculture produces only fish and fish products to be used as a food source.
- The commercial value of aquaculture products is more prominent than pisciculture.
Similarities between Aquaculture and Pisciculture: –
- Both aquaculture and pisciculture are two forms of culturing fish.
- They can use both salt water and fresh water.
- Both aquaculture and pisciculture produce commercially valuable products.
- Moreover, both produce commercially valuable fish products.
- Also, both cultures reduce the rate of overfishing in wild fisheries.
Types of fish culture practices: –
- Extensive fish culture: Culture of fishes in large areas with low stocking density and natural feeding.
- Intensive fish culture: Culture of fishes in small areas with high stocking density and providing artificial feed to increase production.
- Pond culture: Rearing of fishes in pondwater.
- Riverine fish culture: Rearing of fishes in lotic water.
- Dam culture (Culture in Reservoir): Culture of fishes in artificial man-made constructed reservoirs.
- Lake culture (Culture in Lake): Rearing of fishes in lakes which are natural standing water bodies.
- Monoculture: Culture of a single type of fish in a water body. It is also called mono species culture.
- Polyculture: Culture of more than one type of fish in a water body. It is also called a composite fish culture.
- Integrated fish farming: It is the culture of fishes along with agricultural crops
Types of Ponds for Fish: –
The fish farm requires different types of the pond for the various developmental stages of fish growth. They are:
a) Breeding pond: Healthy and sexually mature male and female fishes are collected and introduced in this pond for breeding. The eggs released by the female are fertilized by the sperm and fertilized eggs float in water as frothy mass.
b) Hatchling pits: The fertilized eggs are transferred to hatching pits for hatching. Two types of hatching pits are hatcheries and hatching hapas.
C) Nursery ponds: The hatchlings are transferred from hatching pits after 2 to 7 days. The hatchlings grow into fry and are cultured in these ponds for about 60 days with proper feeding till they reach 2 – 2.5 cm in length.
d) Rearing ponds: Rearing ponds are used to culture the fry. The fish fry is transferred from nursery pond to rearing ponds and is maintained for about three months till they reach 10 to 15 cm in length. In these rearing ponds, the fry develops into fingerlings.
e) Stocking pond: The stocking pond is also called a culture pond or production pond. These ponds are used to rear fingerlings up to the marketable size. Before releasing the fingerlings, the pond is manured with organic manure and inorganic fertilizers.